Examine and assess Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika’s theory of the realism of universals (sāmānya) and/or their theory of the realism of nonexistences (abhāva). The client would like the essay to have a thorough evaluation on both Nyaya-Vaisesika’s theory of the realism of ‘samanya’ and their theory of ‘abhava’. They would like to have the essay to first outline Nyaya-Vaisesika’s theory of the realism of universals, then focus on its incoherence and argue in favour of nominalism, which is a position against the existence of universals. In the discussion of nominalism, it is natural to find the theory of the realism of non-existence, ‘abhava’, appealing. They would like the essay then reference Quine’s article of nominalism to show that the position of believing that the theory of the realism of abhava is coherent is plausible. The essay could also mention the means by which we gain knowledge of the non-existence of things by referencing Chatterjee’s “The perception of non-existence: dichotomy of Ny?ya-mimamsaka’s view” if its helpful to develop the argument. Both article mentioned above are attached below as essential sources. Chakrabarti’s discussion on both universals and negative entities offers a clear account of the essential debate and it would be highly appreciated if this is also taken into account when outlining the Nyaya Vaisesika’s theory of the realism of universals and non-existence. Documents of these two articles are also attached above in the lectures and seminars section. Please feel free to include any other articles and essay that are not attached if found needed or helpful. It will be highly appreciated if the original text Tarka sangraha is quoted during the discussion of the essay. This is attached above in the lectures and seminars section. Of the seven categories “padartha”, which are “substance, quality, action, generality, particularity, intimate relation and negation”, they would like the essay to use the translation ‘universal’, ‘inherence’ and ‘non-existence’ instead of ‘generality’, ‘intimate relation’ and ‘negation’ throughout the whole essay and they want this to be clarified at the beginning of the first paragraph when offering a description of the doctrines and arguments by the school of Nyaya-Vaisesika; it’s appreciated to use the exact same translation the when quoting from the primary text, but when discussing and evaluating the arguments, the new translation is much preferred. The work should have a link with the attached materials. Referencing Harvard – page numbers for all in-text citations Essential sources 1. Chatterjee “The perception of non-existence: dichotomy of Ny?ya-mimamsaka’s view” 2. Quine “On what there is, from properties” Requested sources 1. Chakrabarti “The Nyaya-Vaisesika theory of universals” and “The Nyaya-Vaisesika theory of negative entities” 2. Armstrong, David Malet “The problem” from Universals: an opinionated introduction
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