The way people perceive nature and the environment differs over time and between places. What are the major differences in this perception between the United States and Western Europe and how are people at other places in the world (such as indigenous people) affected by these perceptions? What are the different aspects of nature and the environment that are perceived as valuable and what kind of value is attributed to them? How does this perception and valuation shape what is articulated as an environmental problem and what is in consequence proposed as a solution?
In the 1960s and 1970s new environmental movement organizations and green political parties have been created. What are the different explanations for the fact that this development took place during this period of time? What kind of environmental problems are these movement organizations and parties focusing on and what kind of solutions do they aim for? To what extent is this concern for the environment either similar or different from the concern for the conservation of nature established in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
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