Technology and Small Businesses




Case Study
You work as a technology consultant and provide advice to small businesses.
One day, Louise and Mike approach you. The couple manage a local gym
where their members access gym equipment and sign up for weekly training
sessions with a personal trainer. New members are offered one free
consultation followed by a workout session with one of three personal trainers
employed at the gym.
People interested in joining the gym usually first enquire over the phone, or inperson at reception. A staff member will then provide a tour of the gym’s
facilities, answer any questions, and arrange a future session where new
members meet their new personal trainer. The staff member may ask the new
member what their goals are and what type of training they would like to
receive (i.e. cardio, strength). This helps them to then know which personal
trainer would be most suitable for them. Staff members are expected to be
familiar with all personal trainers, such as their qualifications and
At this stage important information is collected and a contract is signed by the
client. This includes:
• Client’s name and date of birth
• A copy of the clients ID (passport or drivers licence)
• contact details including phone, email and address
• emergency contact details,
• details of any medication the client is currently taking, if any.
• details of any disabilities or injuries that the personal trainer should know
about which has occurred in the past 12 months.
The client will then be provided a free personal training session where further
information is then collected. During this session, further information is
collected, which includes details of the clients:
• weight,
• height,
• BMI (body mass index),
• blood pressure
• fitness goals.
© The Open
Polytechnic of New
• Any other relevant information that will help the personal trainer know in
advance of preparing a training program (i.e. problems with joints, past
Currently, all information is collected on paper. The client will usually write this
information on a form. This form is then scanned, and a copy is kept in the
office filing cabinet.
Client needs
Louise and Mike are looking to develop a new process for managing member
information. They have stressed the need for a new system that is easy to use
and convenient.
The couple are also in the process of creating a new website to attract more
people to the gym and to increase awareness of all the services the gym
provides. They see an opportunity to have new clients sign up for their services
through an online web form. The information they share in a web form can then
be accessed by staff members, and further help with the process of assigning
the right personal trainer to the new member, and help the personal trainers
better prepare their first session with the new member.
© The Open
Polytechnic of New
Question 1: The information management process
There are several phases in the information management process. In Louise’s
case, the right type of information needs to be obtained, then conveniently
stored, maintained and retrieved to meet her needs.
i. Outline each stage of the information life cycle and provide examples
of how gym members information could be most effectively captured,
organised, processed, maintained and destroyed.
ii. Explain how a new online system for managing information would
benefit the company, with reference to the DIKAR/RAKID Model.
[Question 1 total: 10 marks]
Question 2: Ethical issues
Ethical issues may arise wherever there is data – particularly sensitive and
personal data.
i. Provide three examples where ethical issues may arise with the
manner in which information is (i) collected (ii) stored and (iii) shared
with others. Each example should outline the details of a possible
scenario, and explain how this is a problem, and how it could be
avoided. You may like to present your answers in a table format.
Outline the
scenario in detail
Problem Solution
Scenario #1
{briefly outline a
scenario that
involving data
collection here}
Explain why this is a
problem, and the ethical
issues that may arise.
Suggest an alternative
approach that would
reduce and/or eliminate
problems from
Scenario #2
{involving data
Scenario #3
{involving sharing
[Question 2 total: 10 marks]
© The Open
Polytechnic of New
Question 3: XML Data scheme
Create an XML data scheme using custom tags. Illustrate it with a sample data
base that contains two of the garage customers’ details.
[Question 3 total: 5 marks]
Question 4: Security threats (300-400 words)
i. Social engineering is a big threat. Give four (4) examples of how an
attack could be carried out. For each, describe the countermeasures
that could be applied.
Identify a possible
Possible countermeasures
Possible attack #1
Possible attack #2
Possible attack #3
Possible attack #4
[Question 1 total: 5 marks]





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