DISCUSS IN DETAIL ALL OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO HYPOXAEMIA IN A PATIENT WITH TICK PARALYSIS.

DISCUSS IN DETAIL ALL OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO HYPOXAEMIA IN A PATIENT WITH TICK PARALYSIS..

DISCUSS IN DETAIL ALL OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO HYPOXAEMIA IN A PATIENT WITH TICK PARALYSIS.
Discuss in detail all of the pathophysiological processes that lead to hypoxaemiain a patient with tick paralysis.
1. Tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus is a condition that commonly leads torespiratory compromise.Answer all parts of this question:a) Discuss in detail all of the pathophysiological processes that lead to hypoxaemiain a patient with tick paralysis. Include in your answer how to determine whichof these processes are contributing to hypoxaemia in a patient with tick paralysis.Write in full any equations that you would use. (25 marks)b) ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) may occur secondary to tickparalysis. Discuss and describe the diagnosis and pathophysiology of ARDS in atick paralysis patient. (25 marks)c) Compare and contrast the use of the following two (2) tidal volume settings in atick paralysis patient that has developed severe pneumonia: (10 marks)i. 6 mL/kgii. 15 mL/kgSection B starts over pageVeterinary Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Paper 1 Page 3 of 6© 2015 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 208Section B: Answer ALL five (5) short-answer questions1. Answer all parts of this question:a) Define central venous pressure (CVP). List the parameters that are estimatedusing CVP. (3 marks)b) Define venous return. Write an equation that shows the relationship betweenvenous return, CVP and right atrial pressure. (2 marks)c) List the cardiovascular factors that have an effect on CVP (central venouspressure) and describe their relationship to CVP. (10 marks)d) Draw the pressure-volume loop for the left ventricle. Label the points where themitral and aortic valves open and close. Indicate what represents the strokevolume on your curve. (6 marks)e) In a fluid-filled hemodynamic monitoring system for direct arterial bloodpressure monitoring, abnormal waveforms may occur due to overdamping andunder-damping. Define damping and list three (3) causes of over-damping in afluid-filled hemodynamic monitoring system. (3 marks)2. Answer both parts of this question:a) Describe how mast cell degranulation leads to the clinical signs of anaphylaxis.Include in you answer any key differences between dogs and cats. (14 marks)b) Corticosteroids and antihistamines are commonly administered to treatanaphylaxis. If a dog presents with signs of severe anaphylaxis after a bee stingdescribe the decision making process on whether or not to administercorticosteroids and/or antihistamines to the dog. Include in your answerrecommendations for dosing. (10 marks)Continued over pageVeterinary Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Paper 1 Page 4 of 6© 2015 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 2083. Answer all parts of this question:a) Describe the immunological mechanisms of red cell destruction that occur inprimary immune mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA). Include in your answerthe role of complement proteins and mechanisms whereby intravascular andextravascular haemolysis occur. (14 marks)b) For each of the following drugs, outline the mode of action when used fortreatment of IMHA: (4 marks)i. azathioprineii. human immunoglobulin.c) State, with brief justification, why you would or would not use each of the drugsin 3 b) to treat a patient with IMHA. (6 marks)4. Answer both parts of this question:a) Discuss in detail the three (3) mechanisms by which fluid and solutes aretransported across the peritoneal membrane. In your answer explain how thesemechanisms are used in the process of peritoneal dialysis. (14 marks)b) Explain the pathophysiology of dialysis disequilibrium. How can this conditionbe prevented in a patient receiving haemodialysis? (10 marks)5. Answer all parts of this question:a) Discuss in detail the aetiology and pathophysiology of coagulopathy of trauma.(20 marks)b) Describe the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid. (2 marks)c) Briefly state the findings of the CRASH 2 trial as published in the Lancet 2010.(2 marks)

 
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DISCUSS IN DETAIL ALL OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO HYPOXAEMIA IN A PATIENT WITH TICK PARALYSIS.

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