Describe the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework. How does it help to explain the “maintenance of homogeneity” in organizations?

Describe the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework. How does it help to explain the “maintenance of homogeneity” in organizations?.

There are eight short essay questions, the words must be 400-450words for each question. Please provide references after each question as well as indicating word count.

1. Describe the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework. How does it help to explain the “maintenance of homogeneity” in organizations?

2. How does role congruity theory help to explain why women are under-represented in leadership roles?

3. What motivates employers to avoid hiring disabled workers? Are these motivations justified by empirical evidence?

4. According to the rational actor model of hiring decisions, employers will change their stereotyped beliefs about minority job applicants after having positive experiences with members of that minority group. According to Pager and Karafin’s (2009) study, what do employers do in real life?
5. What are the main differences between an ‘equal opportunities’ approach and a ‘diversity management’ approach?

6. Under what circumstances are diverse teams likely to out-perform homogeneous teams?

7. Organisations use images of diversity or information about diversity initiatives in their recruitment advertising to attract job candidates from under-represented groups. Drawing upon Avery (2003), Martins & Parsons (2007), and Williamson et al. (2008), identify three factors that have been shown to influence job applicants’ reactions to this type of advertising, and explain how they do so.

8. How can resistance to diversity be reduced in organisations?


Here are some of the recommended reading list, but please provide more:

Avery, D. R. (2003). Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising–are differences black and white? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 672-679.

Boone, C., van Olffen, W., van Witteloostuijn, A. and de Brabander, B. (2004). The genesis of top management team diversity: Selective turnover among top management teams in Dutch newspaper publishing. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 633–656.

Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573-598.

Elsesser, K. M., & Lever, J. (2011). Does gender bias against female leaders persist? Quantitative and qualitative data from a large-scale survey. Human Relations, 64(12), 1555-1578.

Ely, R. J., & Thomas, D. A. (2001). Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(2), 229-273.

Gratton, L., Voigt, A., & Erickson, T. J. (2007). Bridging faultlines in diverse teams. MIT Sloan Management Review, 48(4), 22-29.

Homan, A. C., Hollenbeck, J. R., Humphrey, S. E., Van Knippenberg, D., Ilgen, D. R., & Van Kleef, G. A. (2008). Facing differences with an open mind: Openness to experience, salience of intragroup differences, and performance of diverse work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1204-1222.

Homan, A. C., Van Knippenberg, D., Van Kleef, G. A., & De Dreu, C. K. (2007). Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: Diversity beliefs, information elaboration, and performance in diverse work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1189-1199.

Ibarra, H., Ely, R. and Kolb, D., 2013. Women rising: The unseen barriers. Harvard Business Review, 91(9), 60-66.

Kidder, D. L., Lankau, M. J., Chrobot-Mason, D., Mollica, K. A., & Friedman, R. A. (2004). Backlash toward diversity initiatives: Examining the impact of diversity program justification, personal and group outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(1), 77-102.

Lengnick-Hall, M. L., Gaunt, P. M. and Kulkami, M. (2008). Overlooked and underutilized: People With disabilities are an untapped human resource. Human Resource Management, 47(2), 255-273.

Martins, L. L., & Parsons, C. K. (2007). Effects of gender diversity management on perceptions of organizational attractiveness: The role of individual differences in attitudes and beliefs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 865-875.

McLaughlin, M. E., Bell, M. P., & Stringer, D. Y. (2004). Stigma and acceptance of persons with disabilities: Understudied aspects of workforce diversity. Group & Organization Management, 29(3), 302-333.

Pager, D., & Karafin, D. (2009). Bayesian bigot? Statistical discrimination, stereotypes, and employer decision making. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621(1), 70-93.

Rudman, L.A. and Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), 743-762.

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40(3), 437-453.

Scott, K. A., Heathcote, J. M., & Gruman, J. A. (2011). The diverse organization: Finding gold at the end of the rainbow. Human Resource Management, 50(6), 735-755.

Stafsudd, A. (2006). People are strange when you’re a stranger: Senior executives select similar successors. European Management Review, 3(3), 177-189.

Tran, V., Garcia-Prieto, P., & Schneider, S. C. (2011). The role of social identity, appraisal, and emotion in determining responses to diversity management. Human Relations, 64(2), 161-176.

Van Knippenberg, D., & Schippers, M. C. (2007). Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 515-541.

Verbeek, S. (2011). Employment equity policy frames in the literature: ‘Good practice’ versus ‘bad idea’. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(9), 1942-1962.

Vescio, T. K., Sechrist, G. B., & Paolucci, M. P. (2003). Perspective taking and prejudice reduction: The mediational role of empathy arousal and situational attributions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 455–472.

Wiethoff, C. (2004). Motivation to learn and diversity training: Application of the theory of planned behavior. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15, 263–278.

Williamson, I. O., Slay, H. S., Shapiro, D. L., & Shivers-Blackwell, S. L. (2008). The effect of explanations on prospective applicants’ reactions to firm diversity practices. Human Resource Management, 47(2), 311-330.

Describe the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) framework. How does it help to explain the “maintenance of homogeneity” in organizations?