NR511 Week 4 Midterm Exam 2017

NR511 Week 4 Midterm Exam 2017.   


Question 1. 1. Women are at the highest risk for developing postpartum depression for up to how long after childbirth? (Points : 2) 

2 weeks

1 month

3 months

6 months

Question 2. 2. CPT coding offers the uniformed language used for reporting medical services and procedures performed by physician and nonphysician practitioners. Clinicians are paid based on calculated resource costs that are calculated based on practice components. Which of the following are part of the components used to calculate the per CPT code payment rate? (Points : 2) 

Clinician education loans

Clinician practice liability and malpractice epense

Clinician reported cost reduction efforts

Clinician volume of patients treated

Question 3. 3. Janet is a 30-year-old woman who has been recently diagnosed with a herniated disc at the level of L5-S1. She is currently in the emergency room with suspicion of cauda equina compression. Which of the following is a sign or symptom of cauda equina compression? (Points : 2) 

Gastrocnemius weakness

A reduced or absent ankle refle

Numbness in the lateral foot

Paresthesia of the perineum and buttocks

Question 4. 4. A 58-year-old woman who had a total abdominal hysterectomy at the age of 45 is diagnosed with atrophic vaginitis. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment? (Points : 2) 

Conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg/day oral

Estradiol 7.5 mcg/24 hr vaginal ring

Medroyprogesterone 10 mg/day oral

Conjugated estrogen 0.3 mg + medroyprogesterone 1.5 mg/day oral

Question 5. 5. Which of the following is a specific test for multiple sclerosis (MS)? (Points : 2) 

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Computed tomography (CT) scan

A lumbar puncture

There is no specific test.

Question 6. 6. Most adult poisonings are: (Points : 2) 

intentional and self-inflicted.


caused by someone wishing to do harm to the person.

not attributed to any reason.

Question 7. 7. A 60-year-old man presents with an enlarged scrotum. The clinician uses a penlight to transilluminate the scrotum. In a patient with a hydrocele, what would the clinician epect to find? (Points : 2) 

The scrotum will be dark.

The scrotum will appear light pink or yellow.

The scrotum will appear milky white.

The internal structures will be clearly visible.

Question 8. 8. Which clinical feature is the first to be affected in increased intracranial pressure (ICP)? (Points : 2) 

Decrease in level of consciousness (LOC)



Widening pulse pressure

Question 9. 9. Mr. S presents in the clinic with pain, tenderness, erythema, and swelling of his left great toe. The clinician suspects acute gout. Which of the following should the clinician suspect in the initial test results for this patient? (Points : 2) 

Elevated uric acid level

Elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Decreased urine pH

Decreased C-reactive protein (CRP)

Question 10. 10. Which solution should be used when irrigating lacerated tissue over a wound on the arm? (Points : 2) 

Dilute povidone-iodine solution

Hydrogen peroide (H2O2)

Saline solution infused with an antibiotic

Saline irrigation or soapy water

Question 11. 11. Which ethical principle reflects respect for all persons and their self-determination? (Points : 2) 





Question 12. 12. During a digital rectal eam (DRE) on a 75-year-old man, the clinician suspects the patient has prostate cancer. What physical finding should make the clinician suspicious? (Points : 2) 

An enlarged rubbery gland

A hard irregular gland

A tender gland

A boggy gland

Question 13. 13. How often should the clinician eamine the feet of a person with diabetes? (Points : 2) 

Once a year

Every 6 months

Every 3 months

Every visit

Question 14. 14. Which of the following signs or symptoms indicate an inflammatory etiology to musculoskeletal pain? (Points : 2) 

Decreased C-reactive protein


Morning stiffness

Weight gain

Question 15. 15. Which of the following medications is the treatment of choice for trichomonas? (Points: 2) 





Question 16. 16. Immunizations are an eample of which type of prevention? (Points: 2) 




Question 17. 17. What is the treatment of choice for a patient diagnosed with testicular cancer? (Points : 2) 

Radical orchidectomy


Radiation implants

All of the above

Question 18. 18. George, aged 59, complains of a flulike illness, including fever, chills, and myalgia after returning from visiting his grandchildren in New England. He reports having discovered a rash or red spot that grew in size on his right leg. What disease are you considering? (Points : 2) 

A viral syndromes

Lyme disease

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Relapsing fever

Question 19. 19. A 24-year-old woman presents to the clinic with dysuria, dyspareunia, and a mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Her boyfriend was recently treated for nongonococcal urethritis. What seually transmitted disease (STD) has she most probably been eposed to? (Points : 2) 


Human papillomavirus (HPV)



Question 20. 20. What is usually the first sign or symptom that a patient would present with that would make you suspect herpes zoster? (Points : 2) 

A stabbing type of pain on one small area of the body

A vesicular skin lesion on one side of the body

A pain that is worse upon awakening

A lesion on the eterior ear canal

Question 21. 21. Which drug commonly prescribed for burns is active against a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens and is the most frequently used agent for partial- and full-thickness thermal injuries? (Points : 2) 

Clotrimazole cream (Lotrimen)

Mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon)

Silver nitrate

Silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene)

Question 22. 22. Which of the following is a role of the advanced practice nurse in palliative cancer care? (Points : 2) 

Detecting cancer in asymptomatic patients or those with specific symptoms

Arranging for follow-up care, including psychosocial and spiritual support

Identifying and managing complications of care

All of the above

Question 23. 23. Which type of burn injury results in destruction of epidermis with most of the dermis, yet the epidermal cells lining hair follicles and sweat glands remain intact? (Points : 2) 

Superficial burns

Superficial partial-thickness burns

Deep partial-thickness burns

Full-thickness burns

Question 24. 24. The criteria for diagnosing generalized aniety disorder in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (tet revision) (DSM-IV-TR) state that ecessive worry or apprehension must be present more days than not for at least: (Points : 2) 

1 month.

3 months.

6 months.

12 months.

Question 25. 25. In the United States, what is the second most common connective tissue disease and the most destructive to the joints? (Points : 2) 


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Sjogren’s syndrome

Question 26. 26. A sunscreen with a sun-protection factor (SPF) of at least what number will block most harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation? (Points : 2) 





Question 27. 27. The hallmark of an absence seizure is: (Points : 2) 

No activity at all.

A blank stare.

Urine is usually voided involuntarily.

The attack usually lasts several minutes.

Question 28. 28. The effectiveness of benzodiazepines in treating aniety disorders suggests that which of the following neurotransmitters plays a role in aniety? (Points : 2) 


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)



Question 29. 29. Which characteristic of delirium helps to distinguish delirium from dementia? (Points : 2) 

Abrupt onset

Impaired attention

Affective changes


Question 30. 30. A 26-year-old woman is seen with complaints of irregular vaginal bleeding. Which of the following tests should be the first priority? (Points : 2) 

Pregnancy test

Pelvic ultrasound

Endometrial biopsy

Platelet count

Question 31. 31. The clinician should question the patient with suspected gout about use of which of these medications that may be a risk factor? (Points : 2) 

Low-dose aspirin

Thiazide diuretics


All of the above

Question 32. 32. A bulla is: (Points : 2) 

A vesicle larger than 1 cm in diameter.

An elevated solid mass with a hard teture, and the shape and borders can be regular or irregular.

A superficial elevated lesion filled with purulent fluid.

Thinning of the skin (epidermis and dermis) that appears white or translucent.

Question 33. 33. Sam is a 25-year-old man who has been diagnosed with low back strain based on his history of localized low back pain and muscle spasm along with a normal neurological eamination. As the clinician, you eplain to Sam that low back pain is a diagnosis of eclusion. Which of the following symptoms would alert the clinician to the more serious finding of a herniated nucleus pulposus or ruptured disc? (Points: 2) 

Morning stiffness and limited mobility of the lumbar spine

Unilateral radicular pain symptoms that etend below the knee and are equal to or greater than the back pain

Fever, chills, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Pathologic fractures, severe night pain, weight loss, and fatigue

Question 34. 34. Which of the following statements is true concerning the musculoskeletal eam? (Points : 2) 

The uninvolved side should be eamined initially and compared to the involved side.

The part of the body that is causing the patient pain should be eamined first.

The patient should not be asked to perform active range-of-motion (ROM) eercises whenever possible to avoid causing pain.

Radiographs should always be obtained prior to eamination so as not to cause further injury to the patient.

Question 35. 35. The current goal of treatment for a patient with HIV infection is which of the following? (Points : 2) 

Viral suppression of HIV to undetectable levels in the peripheral blood

Compete eradication of the virus

Encouraging the person to have no contact with uninfected individuals

Complete abstinence

Question 36. 36. Which of the following classes of drugs should be used as first-line therapy for treatment of delirium? (Points : 2) 





Question 37. 37. After removing a tack from a type 2 diabetic’s heel and evaluating the site for infection, what is the best plan for this patient? (Points : 2) 

Suggest she use a heating pad to improve circulation

Refer to a podiatrist for a foot care treatment plan

Send her for acupuncture treatments

All of the above

Question 38. 38. Which of the following statements is true concerning the management of the client with a herniated disc? (Points : 2) 

Muscle relaants and narcotics can be used to control moderate pain but should be discontinued after 3 weeks of use.

An epidural injection is helpful in reducing leg pain that has persisted for at least 3 weeks after the herniation occurred.

Intolerable pain for more than a 3-month period is an indication for surgical intervention.

All of the above

Question 39. 39. Which patient is more likely to have a cluster headache? (Points : 2) 

A female in her reproductive years

A 40-year-old African American male

A 55-year-old female who drinks 10 cups of coffee daily

A 45-year-old male awakened at night

Question 40. 40. The main mechanism for avoiding a lawsuit involves: (Points : 2) 

Good liability insurance

A collaborating physician

Good documentation

Open communication skills

Question 41. 41. A 45-year-old woman is seen in the clinic with complaints of a vaginal discharge. The clinician identifies clue cells on the vaginal smear. Which of the following diagnoses is associated with this finding? (Points : 2) 


Bacterial vaginosis

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Herpes simple virus (HSV)

Question 42. 42. Which of the following laboratory findings should the clinician epect in a patient with untreated Graves’ disease? (Points : 2) 

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Elevated T4

Elevated TRH

All of the above

Question 43. 43. A 23-year-old seually active woman presents for her first Pap smear. Her history includes nulligravida, age at first intercourse 14, and more than 10 seual partners. Which of the following conditions should the clinician be particularly alert for during her eam? (Points : 2) 

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Endometrial hyperplasia


Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Question 44. 44. When may confidentiality be overridden? (Points : 2) 

When personal information is available on the computer

When a clinician needs to share information with a billing company

When an insurance company wants to know the results of a breast cancer gene test

When a patient has a communicable disease

Question 45. 45. A patient is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG) changes should the clinician epect as a manifestation of the disease? (Points : 2) 

Sinus bradycardia

Atrial fibrillation

Supraventricular tachycardia

U waves

Question 46. 46. The most cost-effective screening test to determine HIV status is which of the following? (Points : 2) 

Western Blot

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test

Viral load

Question 47. 47. After 6 months of synthroid therapy, the clinician should epect which of the following in the repeat thyroid studies? (Points : 2) 

Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Normal TSH


Undetectable TSH

Question 48. 48. The vegetarian patient with gout asks the clinician about food that he should avoid. The clinician should advise the patient to avoid which of the following foods? (Points : 2) 





Question 49. 49. A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presents to the clinic with the complaint of “my feet feel like they are on fire.” He has a loss of vibratory sense, +1 Achilles refle, and a tack embedded in his left heel. Which of the following would be an appropriate treatment? (Points : 2) 

Tricyclic antidepressants

Capsacin cream

Vitamin B12 injections


Question 50. 50. In the consensus model for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) regulation, the “C” of LACE represents? (Points : 2) 





Question 51. 51. In an outpatient setting, what is the most common reason for a malpractice suit? (Points : 2) 

Failure to treat a condition

Failure to diagnose correctly

Ordering the wrong medication

Failure to manage care

Question 52. 52. Which drug for Alzheimer’s disease should be administered beginning at the time of diagnosis? (Points : 2) 

Cholinesterase inhibitors



Atypical antipsychotics

Question 53. 53. A 58-year-old woman presents with a breast mass. Which of the following responses by the clinician would be most appropriate? (Points : 2) 

“It is probably just a cyst, because that is the most common breast mass.”

“We will order a mammogram and ultrasound to help establish a diagnosis.”

“We will go ahead and schedule you for a biopsy because that is the only way to know for sure.”

“Because your lump is painful, it is most likely not cancer.”

Question 54. 54. Jennifer is an 18-year-old girl who comes to the emergency room after a fall during a soccer game. Jennifer eplains that she fell on her left side and kept her arm out straight to break her fall. She has been eperiencing severe pain and limited range of motion in her left shoulder. The clinician has diagnosed Jennifer with a dislocated shoulder. Which of the following statements are true concerning shoulder dislocation? (Points : 2) 

Posterior dislocations are more common than anterior dislocations.

There is a risk of neurovascular and neurosensory trauma, so the clinician should check for distal pulses.

Recurrent dislocations are uncommon and would require a greater force to result in injury.

Surgery is most commonly the treatment of choice.

Question 55. 55. The clinician sees a patient who is 5 feet tall and weighs 150 pounds. How would the clinician classify this patient? (Points : 2) 


Mild obesity

Moderate obesity

Morbid obesity

Question 56. 56. Which of the following statements is true regarding the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome? (Points : 2) 

The goal of treatment is to prevent fleion and etension movements of the wrist.

Splints are used in carpal tunnel syndrome because they allow for free movement of the fingers and thumb while maintaining the wrist in a neutral position.

Corticosteroid injections are discouraged in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome because of the risks for median nerve damage, scarring, and infection.

All of the above

Question 57. 57. Sam, aged 65, is started on L-dopa for his Parkinson’s disease (PD). He asks why this is necessary. You tell him: (Points : 2) 

“L-dopa is neuroprotective.”

“The primary goal of therapy is to replace depleted stores of dopamine.”

“This is the only drug that can provide symptomatic benefit.”

“This is the initial monotherapy drug.”

Question 58.58. When looking under the microscope to diagnose an intravaginal infection, you see a cluster of small and oval to round shapes. What do you suspect they are? (Points : 2) 




Epithelial cells

Question 59. 59. A 22-year-old male is seen in the clinic because he found a hard lump in his testicle when performing testicular self-eamination (TSE). Which of the following should be included in the list of differential diagnoses? (Points : 2) 

Testicular cancer

Inguinal hernia


All of the above

Question 60. 60. Patients with a spontaneous pneumothora should be counseled that up to what percentage may eperience a reoccurrence at some point? (Points : 2) 





Question 61. 61. John is a 16-year-old boy who presents to the emergency room after hurting his knee in a football game. He described twisting his knee and then being unable to etend it completely. John tells the clinician that he heard a pop when the injury occurred and has been eperiencing localized pain. The clinician suspects a meniscal tear. Which test would be most appropriate to assess for the presence of a meniscal tear? (Points : 2) 

Valgus stress test

McMurray circumduction test

Lachman test

Varus stress test

Question 62. 62. The clinician has instructed Sam, a 25-year-old patient with low back strain, to use NSAIDs to manage his symptoms of pain and discomfort. Which of the following statements would be most appropriate when teaching Sam about the use of NSAIDs to manage his pain? (Points : 2) 

You should start with the lowest dose that is effective in managing your pain, because long-term use of NSAIDs can result in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as ulcers and hemorrhage.

You should start with the lowest dose that is effective in managing your pain in order to avoid developing tolerance to the medication.

You should take the maimum recommended dose of NSAIDs so that you will not need to take narcotics to control your pain.

It is important to take NSAIDs on an empty stomach in order to increase absorption.

Question 63. 63. If a previously frostbitten area becomes frostbitten again after it has healed, what might occur? (Points : 2) 

Permanent tissue damage may occur, resulting in necrosis to that body part.

The area will be super sensitive.

The area is prone to a repeat frostbite.

The area is as susceptible as any other area.

Question 64. 64. Julie, aged 50, has migraine headaches, frequent asthma attacks, coronary artery disease, and hypertension. Which of the following prophylactic medications would you order for her migraines? (Points : 2) 





NR511 Week 4 Midterm Exam 2017

PSY 362 Module 3 Assignment 2 – LASA 1 – Development Throughout the Lifespan

PSY 362 Module 3 Assignment 2 – LASA 1 – Development Throughout the Lifespan. Erikson and Freud are two of the few theorists who have developed a lifespan approach to development. Freud’s approach to development was psychosexual while Erikson’s was psychosocial. Even though Freud’s theory is better known, Erikson’s theory remains a leading and very much applied model in personality and developmental psychology today.

When considering these two stage-oriented theories, you can directly compare the majority of their stages. These are matched in the following table:


Approximate Age

Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial development

Infancy (Birth to 1 year)

Oral stage

Trust versus mistrust

Early childhood (1–3 years)

Anal stage

Autonomy versus doubt

Preschool (3–6 years)

Phallic stage

Initiative versus guilt

School age (7–11 years)

Latent period

Industry versus inferiority

Adolescence (12–18 years)

Genital stage

Identity versus role confusion

Young adulthood (19–40 years)


Intimacy versus isolation

Middle adulthood (40–65 years)


Generativity versus stagnation

Older adulthood (65–death)


Integrity versus despair

When considering Erikson’s eight stages of development, the way a person moves through each stage directly affects their success in the next stage. Their personality is being built and shaped with each stage. At each stage, there is a turning point, called a crisis by Erikson, which a person must confront.

In this assignment, you will observe or interview two different people, each at a different stage of development. For a third observation, take a look at yourself and the stage that you are in (this stage must be different from your other two observations).


 Record your three observations in a template. Include the following information: Name Age Gender Current developmental stage Status within the stage (i.e., identity achievement or role confusion) Events that have lead to this status

Download a Development Template from the Doc Sharing area to record your observations.


 Summarize what you have learned about psychosocial development through these observations/interviews. Summarize the trends you see in your observations/interviews regarding psychosocial development. How does movement through Erikson’s stages influence personality development? Again, be specific. How do Erikson’s stages of development compare to Freud’s stages? How are they similar? How are they different? Between these two theories, which one do you feel best explains your own personality development? Justify your answers with specific examples.

Write a 3–4-page paper in Word format. Insert your chart at the end of your paper. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. 



PSY 362 Module 3 Assignment 2 – LASA 1 – Development Throughout the Lifespan

Unit 3: Unit 3: Stimulants and Depressants – Discussion Unit 3 Assignment APA Format. No Plagiarization. Need it back within 24 hrs.

Unit 3: Unit 3: Stimulants and Depressants – Discussion Unit 3 Assignment APA Format. No Plagiarization. Need it back within 24 hrs.. Unit 3: Unit 3: Stimulants and Depressants – Discussion

Unit 3 Assignment APA Format. No Plagiarization. Need it back within 24 hrs.



Unit 3 Discussion

PS452: Psychopharmacology of Alcohol and Drugs  After you have completed the reading, and without reviewing your classmates’ responses, post your initial response to the following Discussion. Your post should be at least 400-450 words in length and should extend the discussion of the group supported by your course materials and/or other appropriate resources.

After you have submitted your initial post, review some of your classmates’ posts and respond to at least two of your classmates. Refer to your Discussion Board Rubric in your Syllabus for specific grading explanation. Topics DiscussionDiscussionSelect one stimulant and one depressant drug from the list that follows. Then, use those to respond to the discussion question below. Use your text and any other listed resource for research.

Drug List

Stimulants:  cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy

Depressants:  Rohypnol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, alcohol

*Note: feel free to select a specific drug from these categories (e.g. benzodiazepine= valium)Explain the effects of stimulants on the brain and body. How does the stimulant that you selected change how someone feels/thinks? Discuss how the specific drug is used and why someone might use it.Explain the effects of depressants on the brain and body. How does the depressant that you selected change how someone feels/thinks? Why would someone choose to use a depressant?Use one of the websites listed below to research one of the drugs that selected (either the stimulant or depressant). Who is most at risk for becoming addicted to this drug? What did you learn about this drug that you did not already know?

Websites: Erowid: erowid.comNational Institute for Drug Abuse:

Unit 3: Unit 3: Stimulants and Depressants – Discussion Unit 3 Assignment APA Format. No Plagiarization. Need it back within 24 hrs.

Discussion – Global Warming

Discussion – Global Warming. This week you studied air pollution and the efforts to try and reduce the amounts of air pollution in specific countries. The discussion this week follows a similar path and poses a question regarding global warming.Most climate experts believe that the Earth is currently experiencing global warming. Your textbook discusses efforts to model how global warming might affect surface temperatures between now and the year 2100. Most models suggest that the Earth’s mean surface temperature will increase between 1.4 and 5.8 degrees Centigrade by the end of the 21st century. This large range of possible surface temperature increases results from an inadequate understanding of the Earth’s climatic system and uncertainties in the data that were entered into the models. Despite allowances for errors in the climate models, critics of claims for global warming still believe that the quality of the climatic data is greatly overestimated and that no reliable conclusions about future surface temperature trends can be made at this time.Do you believe that we will experience significant global warming during this century due to air pollution? Why do you feel this way?

Discussion – Global Warming

PSY381 Module 3 Assignment 2: Course Project Part I: Interview and Background Research

PSY381 Module 3 Assignment 2: Course Project Part I: Interview and Background Research. Refer to the Course Project Overview in Module 1. Early in the course, you have selected a specific disorder. Research it using your textbook and Argosy University online library resources. A minimum of 5 sources in addition to your text book should be used. At least three of those sources should be peer-reviewed journal articles. The remaining 2 sources may be books, journal articles, or reputable web sites (like those from professional organizations or governmental agencies, not Wikipedia or similar sites).   

Review the rubric, as it provides detailed instructions on how best to succeed on this assignment. In the rubric, you will find that you need to address the following in a paper: On Autism is a brain disorder that limits the ability to communicate and relate to other people (

Description of the selected disorder (Identify the      DSM-IV-TR diagnostic category for the disorder and distinguish between      diagnostic and commonly used terminology.)  Causative factors of the disorder  Diagnosis of the disorder  Treatment of the disorder  Survey of current research on the disorder 

Write a 4–5-page paper in Word format. Remember to use the rubric as you write your paper. Apply APA standards to citation of sources, and include an APA style title/cover page and reference page. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M3_A2.doc.

PSY381 Module 3 Assignment 2: Course Project Part I: Interview and Background Research

Week 10 Discussion 2 Alcohol Addiction *

Week 10 Discussion 2 Alcohol Addiction *. Alcohol Addiction

Please respond to the following:


* In the simulation, you helped Alice with advice on her tendency to abuse alcohol. Explore two (2) myths concerning alcohol addiction. Discuss the primary reasons why the myths you have explored arose, and suggest strategies for countering the myths in question.

Week 10 Discussion 2 Alcohol Addiction *


Unit9PeerResponseLifespan. Response Guidelines

Read as many of your peers’ posts as time allows, and respond to at least two of them. Try to choose posts that have had the fewest responses.

Your responses to other learners are expected to be substantive in nature and to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Use the following critique guidelines:

The clarity and completeness of your peer’s post.

The demonstrated ability to apply theory to practice.

The credibility of the references.

The structure and style of the written post.


Jazmine Miller 

Middle and Late Adulthood

Week 9

As an individual ages, so does their mind. For this reason it is important that as an individual grows they take steps to protect their mental states as well as their physical body. The first thing that a practitioner should take into consideration before considering applying one or more theories is the individuals demographics. An individuals demographics have a lot to do with how a practitioner would need to advise them, for instance an individual who had a diagnosis of depression at some point in life is more likely to experience that again inmiddle and late adulthood. Just as individuals with less academic experience and/or an improvised background are more likely to develop dementia (Smith, & Hayslip Jr, 2012).

Before utilizing psychological theory to assist a patient it could be of good use to simply utilize the current research that developmental psychologist provide through articles. This can provide evidence based results. For instance, studies have shown that the use of technology can help maintain mental durability for older individual due to the learning curve that technology provides (Erickson, & Johnson, 2011). 

There are a wide variety of theories that can be used to approach an individual who is approaching middle or late adulthood. However, there are always some that are more appropriate to use then others. A practitioner needs to consistently keep that in mind to ensure that no harm is being done to the patient. With that being said one of the most popular theories in lifespan development is Erik Ericsson’s theory of psychosocial stages. This theory goes through what aspects need to be met through each stage of life to create and maintain a healthy mental state. It also gives an idea of what factors could be affecting a poor mental state. For example in erickdonsvtheory describes middle adulthood as the stage of Generativity vs. Stagnation, in this stage raising a family and being productive in their work and their community(Erikson, 1963, p. 245).There is also stages leading up to late adulthood. 


Smith, G. C., & Hayslip Jr, B. (2012). Resilience in adulthood and later life: What does it mean and where are we heading?. Annual Review of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 32, 3.

Erickson, J., & Johnson, G. M. (2011). Internet use and psychological wellness during late adulthood. Canadian Journal on Aging/la Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 30(2), 197-209.

Erikson, E. H. (Ed.). (1963). Youth: Change and challenge. Basic books.


Pauline Jackson 


Late adulthood is the time after age 55.  Subjective well being is another way to say happiness.  Happiness is a well studies area of the human experience.  “The most commonly used measurements of SWB incorporate three separable factors: overall life satisfaction, frequency of positive and of negative moods” (Broderick, 2014, p. 526). There are things that we measure by self-reporting.  Surveys are often given to see how happy we are, or how well we are feeling about our lives as a whole.  The cognitive part of happiness is measure by how satisfying we view our life.  The reposts of what we view as negative or positive are how our emotions are measured. Based on these surveys and studies we have learned what humans find important and how it relates to how happy we feel.

The experience-sampling method is one way scientists have found to understand what makes humans happy.  While this is a somewhat intrusive test, it shows in real life what creates feelings of happiness.   “Typically, those who use this methodology give participants beepers that are programmed to beep at various points during the day. The beep alerts participants to record what they are doing and how they are feeling at that moment. This strategy is a good way to observe lives as they unfold.” (Broderick, 2014, p. 527)

Another test that was developed is the day reconstruction method.  This test isn’t intrusive the way experience sampling is.  Participants in this test are asked what happened throughout their day.  They may write there experiences in a diary. These memories are described and the participants are given questions to answer about each experience.  The memories are given ratings based on how positive or negative they were to the participant. 

There are many things that effect subjective well being.  Studies have shown that having enough money to make purchases increases happiness.  And thus, having a job that provides the means to make those purchases.  Things like relaxation and sexual intimacy also increase happiness.  “Receiving social support is clearly linked to better coping with life’s stresses, as you will see later in this chapter, but having opportunities to give social support is also a key ingredient in happiness” (Broderick, 2014, p. 530). Those who lack personal relationships in life aren’t as happy.  Marriages also contribute to happiness.  People also find happiness when they work is something that suits their skills and personality.

The common theme in creating well being was interpersonal relationships.  As health care providers, we can help foster these relationships to help keep happiness levels high in our aging population. Humans have a universal need to relate with other humans. 

Broderick, P. C., Blewitt, P. (01/2014). Life Span, The: Human Development for Helping Professionals, 4th Edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from