Music HW for $10. I just need two paragraph replying on these comments. So, each comment needs one paragraph to reply to.
Here is my original post that the new paragraphs need to match it.
Apart from Ellington, Basie, and Goodman, there were other prominent and important big bands of the swing era. One of these bands was that of Louis Armstrong who was famous trumpeter and singer. He was actually the first jazz musician who had a blend of brilliance and exciting persona. Another one was that of Jack Teagarden whose popularity was far felt. His instrument was Trombone. Coleman Hawkins was the pioneer of improvisational tenor saxophone because he brought it into the core of jazz. His band enhanced free expression of emotions through instruments. One of his songs “Body and Soul” was a record hit. Benny Carter also had a strong band with a unique style of orchestrating in big-bands of the era. Billie Holiday who was a singer was also a hit of the time. She is considered as one of top jazz vocalists who greatly improved jazz. Other notable members were Roy Eldridge and Earl Hines who were pianists.
The difference between the styles of tenor saxophonists Lester Young and Hawkins were absolutely profound and famous. For instance, Hawk’s sound was powerful, sharp sound and harder while that of Hawkins was flimsy, soft, and lighter sound. In addition, Hawkins style of playing saxophone was playing through the changing the cords vertically while that of Lester Young played horizontally through cord changes. Despite the fact that they both were swing players and the next change in style was the Bebop, it generally appears that Lester’s style was the predominant force in the establishment and development of bop style and the cool school.
There are distinct differences between the swing-era piano styles differ and the stride style of the 1920s. In terms of rhythm the stride style is highly sophisticated with complicated cross rhythms coupled with a slicker sense of swing while that associated with stride styles is rigid rhythms associated with. Swing era piano ensembles were larger and employed application of written arrangements, saxophones were frequently used in the swing era while there was less collective improvisation during that time. Another significant difference between swing musicians and the previous ones was that usually showed a higher level of instrumental proficiency in regard to speed, dexterity, and control of tone as opposed to the traditional stride era.
Women’s contributions to jazz during the swing era was very significant. This was a time when men were leaving the jazz field to go to fight in the First World War. Due to this mass outflow of men from the industry, women were the able bodies available for the sing era dance bands. It was during this time when people like International Sweet Hearts Rhythm, Harlem Play Girls and the Dixie Rhythm Girls stepped on to the swing era jazz. Ellington band allowed its members to retain stride in pianists.
One of the great vocals of the time were Fletcher Henderson. He was a good pianist, a competent composer, outstanding arranger and bandleader. Another vocal was Duke Ellington who is normally considered as one of the most important composers in the history of music in American. Most of his records are currently considered as jazz standards. Other greats are Johnny Hodges, Count Basie, Art Tatum, Ben Webster and Lester Young.
And here is the comments I would to reply to:
1- I found it interesting to ready about the “All-Girl” bands during the war. I know that during World War 2 women needed to start working more because men were sent to the army. So, women now worked in defense plants, volunteered for war related organizations, and managed their household – – all things they did not do much of before. One thing that never came to my mind was that women also had more flexibility to play music as well. I like how the book mentioned that “the female musician became the counterpart to ‘Rosie the riveter.’” Rosie is a well-known symbol of the women working in factories to support the war effort. To put female musicians next to such a powerful symbol says a lot. I never realized that it was such a big deal for women to also get more recognition for their music. Yes, there were well-known female bands and musicians before the war, but now they were more apparent than ever. I read a little bit about the famous “International Sweethearts of Rhythm” and found out that because of the war, these women were the first black women to travel with the USO. Letter campaigns from African American soldiers overseas demanded them, and they went on tour to France and Germany.
It also surprised me that these “All-Girl” bands were discriminated not only for gender but also for race. It would be hard to be in a band with people that you were not allowed to use the bathroom with, or drink at the same drinking fountain with, or even merely sit by. Since a lot of the bands mostly consisted of African Americans, the one or two white musicians in a band had to try to pass as black! That appalled me. It makes sense, given the circumstances, but still through me for a loop. It’s amazing the distance people will go to do what they love.
2- There were several great bands during the swing era. We are familiar with some of the greats, Ellington, Basie, and Goodman, but there are several others that played a key role jazz history during the swing craze. Mckinney’s Cotton Pickers, for example, was a well-known band founded in Ohio and Detroit. They influenced the Casa Loma Orchestra, of which had some common traits. Glenn Millers band was also among the most famous of the swing era. It was rooted more in the popular music of the time rather than in jazz, like many other white groups. Miller was a trombonist and worked as a freelancer, doing studio work mostly. The band eventually got national attention and is now known for its arrangements rather than its soloists like many other groups are.
Another influential individual during the swing era was Lester Young. Lester was the most significant tenor saxophonist and he escaped the influence of Coleman Hawkins. Hawkins way of playing was vertical, hard-tongued, staccato, and cord-anchored. Young’s way of hearing music, on the other hand, was that of telling a story in the music and the blues. Lester was featured as a soloist with the Count Basie Band and influenced Jimmy Dorsey and Frank Trumbauer. With them he cultivated a lighter sound that had fewer vibratos, whereas Hawkins had a muscular style.
As the US got involved in World War II men were drafted to the military. As we know in every aspect of work men were scarce and women became more prominent in the workplace. This also affected musicians. Male bands would sign up for the army together so they could play their music out in the field. This gave way for “all-girl” bands in the 1940’s. Some well-known female musicians were Valaida Snow and Dolly Jones on the trumpet, trombonist Melba Liston, Vi Redd on the saxophone and Drummer Paula Hampton. Many female jazz bands existed before the war but as their popularity emerged during WWII heated debates about whether women could, or should, play jazz often occurred. Gender and racial discrimination were often directed towards these groups. They did all they could to continue to play including outwitted the police during tours.
It would have been interesting to live during this period of time. Not only was there a lot happening pertaining to jazz but every aspect of society was going through growing pains.
Please be aware that our professor use turn it in for originality check. A good resource is ch6 of this book: Martin, Henry, and Keith Waters. Jazz: The First 100 Years, 2012. Book ISBN: 1439083339