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CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 2. Exercise 2.50: Problems by Topic – Atomic Theory, Nuclear Theory, and Subatomic Particles

Which of the following statements about subatomic particles are false?

Part A

Protons and electrons have charges of the same magnitude but opposite sign.



Part B

Protons have about the same mass as neutrons.



Part C

Some atoms don’t have any protons.



Part D

Protons and neutrons have charges of the same magnitude but opposite sign.



Exercise 2.58: Problems by Topic – Isotopes and Ions

Uranium-235 is used in nuclear fission.

Part A

Determine the number of protons and neutrons in uranium-235.

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

N p , N n = 



Part B

Write its symbol in the form AZ X .

Express your answer as an isotope.  


Exercise 2.60: Problems by Topic – Isotopes and Ions

Determine the number of protons and electrons in each of the following.


Part A

Zn 2+

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

N p , N e = 



Part B

P 3−

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

N p , N e = 



Part C

Fe 3+

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

N p , N e = 



Part D

Sr 2+

Enter your answers numerically separated by a comma.

N p , N e = 




Exercise 2.74: Problems by Topic – The Periodic Table and Atomic Mass

Silicon has three naturally occurring isotopes with the following masses and natural abundances:


Mass (amu)

Abundance (%)










Part A

Calculate the atomic mass of silicon.

Atomic mass = 




Exercise 2.79: Problems by Topic – The Mole Concept

Part A

How many sulfur atoms are there in 4.5 mol of sulfur?

Express your answer using two significant figures.





Exercise 2.81: Problems by Topic – The Mole Concept

What is the amount, in moles, of each of the following substances?


Part A

12.2 g Ar



Part B

3.75 g Zn



Part C

26.6 g Ta



Part D

0.219 g Li




Exercise 2.82: Problems by Topic – The Mole Concept

What is the mass, in grams, of each of the following?

Part A

2.3×10−3 mol Sb

Express your answer using two significant figures.




Part B

3.53×10−2 mol Ba

Express your answer using three significant figures.




Part C

43.6 mol Xe

Express your answer using three significant figures.




Part D

1.1 mol W

Express your answer using two significant figures.





Exercise 2.76: Problems by Topic – The Periodic Table and Atomic Mass

The atomic mass of copper is 63.546 amu


Part A

Do any copper isotopes have a mass of 63.546 amu ?



Part B


Exercise 2.36: Problems by Topic – The Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Proportions, and Multiple Proportions

Upon decomposition, one sample of magnesium fluoride produced 1.65 kg of magnesium and 2.57 kg of fluorine. A second sample produced 1.31 kg of magnesium.


Part A

How much fluorine (in grams) did the second sample produce?






Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Final Paper

Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Final Paper.  

Final Paper


As the newly appointed safety manager at a large plastics manufacturing company, you are called to the loading dock to find that a large truck, full of cartons of pellets used in the manufacturing process, is engulfed in flames. The truck slid on ice in the parking area and crashed into empty trailers. A call to the city emergency services indicated that they will be delayed indefinitely due to roads made impassible by the ice storm. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pellets indicates that burning releases toxic smoke. Note that larger companies are likely to have their own emergency response teams equipped and trained to handle the most likely hazards found at the site.

Prepare an Incident Action Plan that includes all of the requirements shown below. Respond to each bullet point based on what you know of the situation. Clearly state any assumptions you make in your plan. The list is a subset of the United States Department of Health & Human Services’ suggested comprehensive Incident Action Plan available at www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/.

 Identify at least two incident goals (i.e., where the response system should be at the end of response) and at least two operational objectives (i.e., major areas that must be addressed in the specified operational period to achieve the goals or control objectives).  Describe at least two response strategies (i.e., priorities and the general approach to accomplish the operational objectives) and at least two response tactics (i.e., specific methods developed to achieve the response strategies).  Prepare an organization list showing at least three primary roles and an assignment list with at least three specific tasks and their owners.  Explain a health and safety plan (to prevent responder injury or illness) that includes at least three provisions to ensure personnel safety. Summarize a communications plan (how functional areas can exchange information) with at least a primary and secondary method of communication.  Locate the incident using a map or precise verbal description that allows responders to find the area and indicate an area that non-responders should avoid.


Writing the Final Paper


The Final Paper:

 Must be seven to eight double-spaced pages in length (not including the title and reference pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  Must include a title page with the following: Title of paper  Student’s name  Course name and number  Instructor’s name  Date submitted  Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement  Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.  Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.  Must use at least six scholarly sources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford Online Library, in addition to the textbook.  Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  


Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.




Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Final Paper

Cohen, A. R., & Bradford, D. L. (2005). Influence without authority: How to lead people who do not report to you. (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN: 0-471-46330-2 Thompson, L. L. (2014). Making the team: A guide for Managers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle Ri

Cohen, A. R., & Bradford, D. L. (2005). Influence without authority: How to lead people who do not report to you. (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN: 0-471-46330-2 Thompson, L. L. (2014). Making the team: A guide for Managers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle Ri. Cohen, A. R., & Bradford, D. L. (2005). Influence without authority: How to lead people who do not report to you. (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN: 0-471-46330-2 Thompson, L. L. (2014). Making the team: A guide for Managers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.  200 words, no format needed except APA for references.  

What are some of the most common misperceptions of managers when it comes to teams and teamwork? How can these misperceptions lead to poor team performance?

Cohen, A. R., & Bradford, D. L. (2005). Influence without authority: How to lead people who do not report to you. (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN: 0-471-46330-2 Thompson, L. L. (2014). Making the team: A guide for Managers (5th ed.). Upper Saddle Ri

Outline for technical paper

Outline for technical paper. MSE 227 Term Paper Outline

What is it? – 

A 1 page paper that demonstrates you have:

a topic,

the structure (organization)

very brief information for the paper sections, and

the specific sources (references)


What is its purpose? –
•    The outline is to show that you have started working on your paper.
•    That you know what you will discuss (sections/subtopics) and where you can find this information (sources and complete references).
•    It is important that you learn how to research and how to find relevant technical information for your paper.
•    The topic you select must be listed on the Moodle site and first PowerPoint (introduction to the course). You will not receive credit if topic is from a previous semester and has specifically been removed from the term paper list.
•    I must be able to locate your sources based on listed references. References must be properly formatted for the outline and final paper.

Below is an example of the basic structure and length for the outline.

You have to provide detailed information such as what is your topic, very briefly what will be discussed in each section, and specific references, properly formatted.

This is a technical report; provide relevant content, omit the use of “I” and “we”.
Start early. Don’t wait until the last minute.

Outline Sections (to include if appropriate)

Topic (title of term paper)
Abstract (go back and do this after paper is finished)

Material Properties

Acceptable Reference Format Example

[1] M. Kajiwara, S. Uemiya, T. Kojima and E. Kikuchi, Hydrogen permeation properties through composite membranes of platinum supported on porous alumina, Catal. Today 56 (2000), p. 65.
[2] J. H. Arps, B. Lanning and G. Dearnaley, Maximizing a Potentially Significant Energy Source: SwRI researchers develop ultra-thin metal membranes for hydrogen gas separation, Technology Today, Spring 2006.
[3] K. Hou and R. Hughes, “Preparation of thin and highly stable Pd/Ag composite membranes and simulative analysis of transfer resistance for hydrogen separation,” Journal of Membrane Science 214 (2003), p. 43.
[4] J.N. Keuler and L. Lorenzen, Developing a heating procedure to optimize hydrogen permeance through Pd–Ag membranes of thickness less than 2.2 μm, Journal of Membrane Science  195 (2002), p. 203.
[5] Y.S. Cheng and K.L. Yeung, Palladium–silver composite membranes by electroless plating technique, Journal of Membrane Science 158 (1999), p. 127. 




Technical paper Summary:
The purpose is to become familiar with the behavior of materials in specific applications. The technical paper will build upon course material; its technical difficulty and content should be comparable to Callister/Rethwisch textbook.
Topics for the Technical Paper
Gallium nitride semiconductors
OLED Technology
3-D Printing high quality graphene
Improvements (or replacement materials for) Li rechargeable batteries
Graphene sensors
Wearable sensors, self-powered monitors integrated in clothing
Sapphire materials
Additive manufacturing
Carbon nitride in optics or electronics
Aluminum Foam
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) thermoplastic in biocompatible applications.
Basic format and section headings
Abstract 1- short paragraph
Introduction (about the subject matter)
Material properties
Comparison with other materials
Processing Techniques
Single spaced with 1-inch margins. 10-12 inch font.
8 page maximum; content is more important than length.
Include figures and tables. All figures and tables MUST have appropriate captions.
All references must be appropriately cited throughout the text and listed using ISO format at the end of the paper (see formatting examples for the outline).

Outline for technical paper

1.Which pressure is different from the others?

1.Which pressure is different from the others?. Unit H Review—The Behavior of Gases 



Gases have different physical and chemical properties. All gases have properties that can be explained by the Ideal Gas Model of the Kinetic Molecular Theory. This theory states: Gas molecules have no volume compared to the total space they occupy. There are no attractions between gas molecules. Gas molecules are constantly moving and colliding.  All gas molecules have the same average kinetic energy (AKE) at the same temperature.

Gas pressure is a result of moving gas molecules colliding with the walls of the container. Such pressure can be measured using pressure gauges and pressure sensors. Air pressure, specifically, is measured with a barometer.

The gas laws are a series of mathematical equations, in agreement with the Ideal Gas Model, that can be used to make predictions of pressure, volume, temperature, and moles of molecules.

Real gases do behave very closely (within a few percent) of what the Ideal Gas Model predicts at temperatures and pressures normally encountered in a typical high school laboratory.  At low temperatures and high pressures, however, real gases can be made to condense to liquids. This is because real gas molecules do occupy some space and do have some attraction for each other. The nature of these attractions forms a major portion of the content of the next unit.


Gas Law



Gas Law




P1V1 = P2V2

(at constant T and n)

Avogadro’s V1  =  V2

n1      n2

(at constant P and T)

Charles’ V1  =  V2

T1     T2

(at constant P and n)


PV = nRT

(R = 8.314 kPaL mol-1 · K-1)

Combined P1V1  =  P2V2

T1         T2

(at constant n)

Dalton ’s

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + …



Review Questions:


1.      Which pressure is different from the others?

            A.        790 mmHg

            B.        105 kPa

            C.        1.04 atm

            D.        Choices A, B, and C are all the same pressure.


2.      As the temperature of a gas increases, the kinetic energy of its particles

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


3.      If the volume of a balloon expands, and the temperature remains constant, the pressure on the balloon

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


4.      If the temperature of the air inside an automobile tire increases, but the tire does not expand, the pressure of the air inside the tire

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


5.      A partially inflated weather balloon is released.  If the air temperature is constant, but the air pressure around the balloon drops as the balloon rises, the volume of the weather balloon

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


6.      A chemist has a certain volume of gas in a balloon.  If the volume of gas decreases overnight, but the pressure remains constant, the temperature of the gas

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


7.      All gases deviate from ideal gas behavior, particularly at high pressures and low


            A.        True

            B.        False


8.      Temperatures below absolute zero are not possible.

            A.        True

            B.        False

9.      For an ideal gas  is a constant.

            A.        True

            B.        False


10.  In a mixture of gases, each gas behaves independently of the other gases in the mixture.

            A.        True

            B.        False


11.  Which temperature scale provides a direct measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance?

            A.        Celsius

            B.        Kelvin

            C.        Fahrenheit

            D.        Reamur


12.  What is the name of a device used to measure gas pressure?

            A.        Thermometer

            B.        Vaporometer

            C.        Calorimeter

            D.        Barometer


13.  Which law describes the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas?

            A.        Boyle’s Law

            B.        Dalton’s Law

            C.        Charles’ Law

            D.        Gay-Lussac’s Law


14.  According to Avogadro’s Principle, equal ____ of gas at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.

            A.        masses                         B.        volumes

            C.        samples                        D.        areas


15.  The individual molecules of gas at STP

            A.        never collide.

            B.        all have the same speed.

            C.        travel at different speeds.

D.        have a constant speed.


16.  If kinetic energy is added to a sample of gas in a rigid container, which of the following takes place?

            A.        The temperature increases.

            B.        The pressure increases.

            C.        The molecules of gas move faster.

            D.        All the above occur.


17.  If two different gases have the same kinetic energy,

            A.        the gas with more mass has a greater velocity.

            B.        the gas with more mass has a lower velocity.

            C.        the gases have the same velocity, regardless of mass.

            D.        the gas with more mass has a higher temperature.


18.  Gases deviate from ideal behavior because gas particles

            A.        are in continuous motion.

            B.        move randomly in straight lines.

            C.        have different amounts of kinetic energy.

            D.        have some attraction for each other.


19.  When a closed tank of air is heated, the density of the air (neglecting any expansion of the tank)

            A.        increases.

            B.        decreases.

            C.        remains the same.


20.  Which of the following is NOT one of the postulates of the Kinetic-Molecular Theory of gases?

            A.        Gas molecules are in a state of constant, random motion.

B.         The diameter of a gas molecule is large when compared with the distance between gas molecules.

            C.        There is no force of attraction between gas molecules.

            D.        The temperature of a gas is a reflection of the average kinetic energy of the gas.

            E.         Choices A, B, C, and D are all postulates of the Kinetic-Molecular Theory.






21.  59.7 cm3 of helium gas at 95.0 kPa is expanded to 100.0 cm3 at constant temperature.  What is the new pressure on the gas?





22.  Oxygen gas is collected over water at a temperature of 25.0 ° C and a pressure of 746.8 mmHg.  What is the pressure due to dry oxygen gas?





23.  What pressure will be exerted by 7.99 g of butane, C4H10, if the gas is in a container measuring 1.50 L and is at 27 ° C?





24.  5.18 L of nitrogen gas at 76.0 ° C are cooled to 6.0 ° C at constant pressure.  Calculate the new volume of the gas.





25.  What is the molar mass of a gas if 372.0 mL has a mass of 0.800 g at 99.8 ° C and 106.6 kPa?





26.  What volume of CO2 (g) is produced when 1.05 kg of ethane, C2H6 (g) , is burned?  The temperature is 24.0 ° C and the pressure is 745.0 mmHg.


2 C2H6 (g)   +  7 O2 (g)   ¾ ®   4 CO2 (g)   +  6 H2O (g)





Unit I Review—Liquids, Solids and Phase Changes (optional material in red)



There are not only intermolecular attractions between molecules in the gas phase, but those forces of attraction are extremely important for liquids and solids.

The Kinetic-Molecular Theory is fundamental to the understanding of matter. The Kelvin temperature scale is an indicator of relative molecular motions, with the particles having no motion at absolute zero.

Intermolecular forces are called van der Waals forces: London dispersion forces and dipole-dipole forces. A special case of dipole-dipole forces is hydrogen bonding, which have higher than expected melting and boiling points, enhanced solubility, unique molecular shapes, etc.

Ionic bonding is the result of a 3-dimensional array of positive and negative ions attracting each other, resulting in very high melting and boiling points.

Metallic bonding occurs because the valence electrons in metal atoms are free to move to any of the empty orbitals in the crystal and, therefore, belong to the whole crystal rather than just between two atoms. 

Substances that have network covalent bonding are generally very hard, strong, brittle, and have extremely high melting and boiling points.  Most do not conduct electricity.

In order to undergo a phase change, the attractions between whole particles (atoms, ions, or molecules) in the substance must overcome interparticle attractions (van der Waals, metallic bonds, ionic bonds or covalent bonds).


Vocabulary: absolute zero


dipole-dipole forces

hydrogen bond hydrogen bond

intermolecular forces

interparticle attractions

isoelectronic lattice energy

London dispersion forces

normal boiling point

sublimation van der Waals forces


vapor pressure



Review Questions:




1.      Substances that are liquids at room temperature or below are

            A.        ionic.

            B.        nonpolar covalent molecular.

            C.        metallic.

            D.        covalent network.


2.      Crystals such as diamonds (very hard, high melting point, nonconductors) are classified as

            A.        ionic crystals.

            B.        covalent molecular crystals.

            C.        covalent network crystals.

            D.        metallic crystals.


3.      Metallic crystals characteristically have

            A.        good electric conductivity.

            B.        great hardness.

            C.        low melting points.

            D.        brittleness.




4.      Because of the hydrogen bonds in water, the hydrogen atom of one water molecule may be

            A.        weakly attracted to the oxygen of a second water molecule.

            B.        weakly attracted to the hydrogen of a second water molecule.

            C.        strongly attracted to the second hydrogen of its own molecule.

            D.        strongly attracted to the oxygen of a second water molecule.


5.      As ice is heated from a lower temperature towards its melting point, the hydrogen bonds

            A.        get stronger.

            B.        stretch.

            C.        increase in number.

            D.        cause the formation of hexagonal patterns.


6.      What is thought to cause dispersion forces?

            A.        attraction between ions

            B.        motion of electrons

C.        differences in electronegativity

            D.        the formation of hexagonal patterns


7.      Why is hydrogen bonding only possible with hydrogen?

A.         because hydrogen is the only atom whose nucleus is not shielded by electrons when it is involved in a covalent bond

            B.        because hydrogen is the only atom that is the same size as an oxygen atom

            C.        because hydrogen has the highest electronegativity of any element in the periodic table


8.      What is the basis of a metallic bond?

            A.        the attraction of metal ions for mobile electrons

            B.        the attraction between neutral metal atoms

            C.        the neutralization of protons by electrons

            D.        the attraction of oppositely charged ions


9.      What occurs during the dissolving of an ionic crystal?

            A.        Ions separate from molecules.

            B.        Molecules surround ions.

            C.        Molecules bind covalently to molecules.

            D.        Ionic compounds are formed.


10.  Why are two nonpolar substances able to dissolve each other?

            A.        There is no repulsive force between them.

            B.        They combine to produce a polar substance.

            C.        There is no attractive force between them.

            D.        Nonpolar molecules cannot dissolve in each other.


11.  Chlorine is a gas, bromine is a liquid, and iodine a solid because of differences in the strength of their

            A.        hydrogen bonds.

            B.        dispersion forces.

            C.        dipole interactions.

D.        polar bonds.






12.  The high surface  tension of water is due to the

            A.        small size of water molecules.

            B.        high kinetic energy of water molecules.

            C.        hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

            D.        covalent bonds in water molecules.


13.  It has been said, “There are forces of attraction between molecules in all chemical systems.”  Which of the following experimental observations supports this statement?   

            A.        Gases can be condensed to form liquids.

            B.        Solids are very difficult to compress.

            C.        Liquids have an indefinite shape.

            D.        Not all solids are ionic crystals.


14.  Ionic solids

            A.        are soft and have low melting points.

            B.        melt to form liquids that conduct electricity.

            C.        are malleable.

            D.        conduct electricity.


15.  Solid sodium metal and molten sodium chloride conduct electricity because both contain

            A.        mobile electrons.

            B.        mobile ions.

            C.        active metals, which are good conductors.

            D.        mobile charged particles.



For questions #16 to 26, write the letter of the bond or attractive force, chosen from the list below, that is most closely associated with that compound or phrase. A.                ionic bond

B.                 network covalent bonds

C.                 dipole-dipole attractions

D.                hydrogen bonds E.                 metallic bond

F.                  covalent bonds

G.                dispersion forces


16.  Are weak enough to permit solid iodine to sublime readily upon heating.


17.  Al (s)


18.  Bond noble gas atoms in the liquid phase.


19.  Responsible for the extremely high melting point of diamond (above 3500º C).


20.  Link the atoms in a molecule of a diatomic gaseous element.


21.  Allows methanol to be infinitely soluble in ethanol.


22.  SiO2 (s)


23.  Positive ions immersed in a “sea of mobile (delocalized) electrons.”


24.  This substance will not conduct as a solid, but will conduct as a liquid or in solution.


25.  OCl2



26.  (diagram)




27.  Which of the following processes requires the least energy?

            A.        Breaking the bond between Na+ and Cl− in NaCl.

            B.        Breaking the bond between H and Cl in HCl.

            C.        Separating two CO molecules.

            D.        Separating two H2O molecules.


28.  Which of the following transformations is sublimation?

A.   Solid ® Gas

B.   Gas ® Solid

C.   Liquid ® Solid

D.   Solid ® Liquid


29.  Using intermolecular force theory, explain why a substance will change from a gas to a liquid if the temperature is lowered sufficiently.


30.  In terms of electron mobility and electronegativity, explain why Na (s) is a very good conductor of electric current while NaCl (s) is a nonconductor.

Unit I—Additional Material


Exercises: Phase Changes (Use after Section I.35)

1.      Why is H2O(g) usually called water vapor?



2.      What is the difference between evaporation and boiling?



3.      How would it be possible to boil water at room temperature?



4.      When water is heated to boil, tiny bubbles form on the bottom surface.  What gas is inside the bubbles a) initially and b) at full boil?



5.      a) If we have no frost or built up ice in a freezer and introduce water vapour into the freezer (by opening it on a humid day) what will happen?
b) Conversely, I once put a unwrapped snowball in my mother’s freezer in January and by July it was almost shriveled in size to a small pea. What happened?.



6.      People will often refer to the boiling point of water as 100 ° C.  What is actually meant by this?

7.      Some non-chemists have argued that the ocean must be less than 10 000 years old based on the following logic:
a) water carrying salts flows to the ocean from rivers running over mineral rich rocks
b) this water and mineral salt solution flows into the sea
c) only water evaporates from the oceans (the salt is left behind)
d) thus the salt concentration of the ocean should increase yearly and the measured salinity of the ocean is much less than if the ocean has been here for millions and billions of years.
Using LeChatelier’s principle and the reversibility of dissolving and salt crystallization explain how to respond to this charge.

8.      Consider the following reversible reaction:

                  N2O4 (g) à 2 NO2 (g)


If we add in more NO2 we’ll force the reaction further to the _____. Explain using LeChatelier’s Principle. What would happen if added more N2O4?






1.Which pressure is different from the others?